World Languages and the Natural Virtues: Prudence, Temperance, Courage and Justice

Conference Program

29th Annual CAWL Conference April 4-6th, 2019

CAWL 2019 – Program Overview


Thursday, April 4, 2019

  • 2:30-5:00 PM            Board Meeting
  • 5:30-7:00 PM             Registration, welcome, reception

Friday, April 5, 2019

  • 8:30-9:00 AM            Worship
  • 9:00-9:15 AM            Break
  • 9:15-10:15                 Welcome/Keynote Speaker
  • 10:15-10:30               Break
  • 10:30-12:00              Session I (4 panels)
  • 12:00-1:00                 Lunch
  • 1:15-2:45                   Session II (4 panels)
  • 2:45-3:00                   Break
  • 3:00-4:30                   Session III (4 panels)
  • 4:45-5:30                   Social Hour
  • 5:30                            Dinner/Evening Entertainment

Saturday, April 7, 2019

  • 9:00-9:30 AM            Worship
  • 9:30-9:45                   Break
  • 9:45-11:15                 Session IV (3 panels)
  • 11:30-1:00                 Lunch/Business Meeting/ Final Worship

Afternoon activity for those who will be staying

Session I A : Fostering the Virtues in the Pursuit of Intercultural Communicative Competence

Presider:  Julia Villaseñor


Kim Hernández & Ángeles González-Aller, Whitworth University


Stepping Off the Veranda: Courage in the Pursuit of Intercultural Competency


Study abroad challenges students in many ways.  The development of intercultural competency requires intentional focus on self-assessment and stepping out of one’s comfort zone to find meaningful engagement in the new cultural context.  The virtues of courage and temperance contribute to the growth and development of a study abroad experience.



Frieda E. Brinkmann, Eastern University


The Compatibility of the Aims of Language Teaching from an Intercultural Orientation and the Natural Virtues – Rethinking the Core Curriculum Introductory Language Course


Inspired by a lecture by Anthony Liddicoat on “Developing Intercultural Competence in Language Education” and recent literature on intercultural language teaching and learning, as well as Josef Pieper’s book The Four Cardinal Virtues, this paper presents the compatibility between the aims of an intercultural orientation to teaching language and culture and the natural virtues that informs a reconceptualization of the core introductory language course.


Julianne Bryant and Chelsea Bryant-Hassler, Biola University


Preparing our Students for Intercultural Engagement: A Practice in Hearing the Other


Educational theories of  intellectual humility, intercultural citizenship and intercultural communicative competence touch on the ways in which fostering intercultural engagement  in our students promotes a practice of the virtues.  An example from a recent class on the culture of Puerto Rico will demonstrate how.  Results from a student survey and actual student feedback will be shared.

Session I B: Strangers, Good Samaritans and Lessons of Hospitality

Presider:  Itzel Reyes


Christine Goring Kepner and Jillian Dowdy, Wheaton College


Sebastian Borenzstein’s Un cuento chino: Good Samaritanism or Orientalism?


This immigration comedy and its title (“un cuento chino” means “a tall tale”) perpetuate Western stereotypes even as the story portrays a sweet and comic story of hospitality. I propose that a Christian viewer must interrogate assumptions about who extends hospitality to whom and consider the reciprocal nature of xenophilic hospitality as defined by David I. Smith.


Tamara Townsend, Wheaton College


The Courageous Good Samaritans of La luz prodigiosa


La luz prodigiosa, 2003 Spanish film directed by Miguel Hermoso, develops the Biblical theme of the Good Samaritan as Joaquín wrestles with his moral obligation toward the famous man whose life he saved from a fascist firing squad in 1936. The film downplays the critical role of the church in the victim’s rehabilitation.


Sharenda Barlar, Wheaton College


Study Abroad and the Christian Virtue of Prudence:  A Practical Guide for Leaders in a Digital Age


In this session, we will discuss valuable techniques that can be incorporated into a study abroad program to encourage the Christian virtue of prudence among our digital native students.  Examples of positive uses of technology that can foster a better understanding of other cultures, as well as practical risk management ideas will be shared.

Session I C: A Christian Perspective on SLA

Presider: Kris McDonald


Rachel Sangster, Baylor University


The Tower of Babel and a Christian Perspective on Second Language Teaching


Negative interpretations of the Tower of Babel have historically been used to discredit second language teaching. Through considering the story’s varying interpretations in the context of other scripture, such as the story of the Pentecost, we can better understand how this story may positively contribute to second language teaching from a Christian perspective.


Noelle Knee, Baylor University

Love the Alien

Personal experience with a parachurch English-Language-Learning program demonstrated first-hand the insufficient governmental support for non-English speaking immigrants. This essay calls Christians to act with compassion and pursue justice in creating or backing adult language education programs.

Joshua Allen, Baylor University


Speaking to the Heart: Motives in Second Language Acquisition in a Christian Context


This essay identifies factors in motivation for learning a second language from a Christian perspective and assesses the value of speaking another’s heart language in the context of the Christian faith. Personal experiences, such as working with Rohingyan refugees in Malaysia, will provide practical examples of this theme’s application.

Session I D: Expanding the Circle of Moral Consideration: Fostering Christian Character in the World Languages Classroom

Presider:  Patty Tinkey


Angela D. Ferguson, Samford University


Confronting Oppression: Empowering Christian Character Through Transformative Dialogue


In the upper-level German language class, Nazi Germany provides a framework from which students can explore issues of justice. These guided discussions frame a context from which to think critically and understand (in)justice. In this presentation, I describe the contextual framework used to facilitate transformative dialogue in the target language.


Marigene Chamberlain, Samford University


Learning from the Stranger: Building Christian Character through Experiential Learning


This presentation describes the intersection of content and process as a formative space for developing Christian virtue, specifically courage and prudence. Through engaging content by and about “the other” and using experiential learning pedagogies, the students have the space to practice courage and prudence in completing coursework for an upper-level Spanish class.

Kelly Jenson, Samford University


Relinquishing the Center: Engaging Christian Character Through Role-Play


This presentation explores how role-playing can provide a dynamic space from which to engage in developing Christian virtue. Role-playing in the classroom breaks down barriers to speaking in the target language and promotes awareness of cultural differences. The presentation will describe this process in an upper-language literature Spanish course.

Session II A: The Gift of the Stranger Twenty Years Later (Part I)

Presider:  Jennifer Good


Jacob Rapp, Whitworth University


Major or Minor Shifts? Moving Carvill and Smith from the Language Classroom to Literary and Cultural Studies


How should we extend Carvill’s and Smith’s ideas to advanced courses in languages other than English where the objectives extend beyond cross-cultural communication? I will begin to answer these questions by discussing some challenges and opportunities associated with Christian pedagogy in the organization and delivery of a Spanish major.


Amos Kasperek, Bob Jones University


Biblical Worldview and the “New Paradigm” in World Language Teacher Education Programs


The past twenty years have brought significant changes to the way in which teacher education programs are designed and assessed, particularly with regard to the role of cultural in the curriculum. This paper explores intersection between the philosophic underpinnings of the “new paradigm” for World Language Education and the biblical worldview framework presented in Smith and Carvill’s The Gift of the Stranger with the purpose of better understanding how Christian Educator Preparation Providers (EPPs) can best equip future teachers in the profession.


Leslie Reed, Abilene Christian University


A Better Gift: A Christian Perspective on Deconstructing Monolingualism in the Classroom


Why do so many graduates complain that they cannot remember a single word of their second language? This is the question in Virginia Scott’s book Double Talk. This paper considers Scott’s research through the Christian lens presented by David Smith and Barbara Carvill in The Gift of the Stranger.


Session II B: Grace, Courage and Solitude in Latin American Literature

Presider:  Dianne Zandstra


Moises Park, Baylor University


Reading Borges and Common Grace


How does reading Borges, motivate us to practice reader’s meekness, and consider literature as common grace? This presentation will borrow Calvin and Wesleyan’s thoughts on “common grace” as frameworks to study the poem “Another Poem of the Gifts,” and his story “The Aleph.”



Sierra Outerbridge, Samford University


Doubt Changes Society: The Courage of Dialoguing with the Text in Jorge Luis Borges and Julio Cortázar


This paper will emphasize the importance of several Argentine short stories in developing the reader’s social awareness and the responsibility Christians have to their community.  I will demonstrate the importance of the narrative in the reader’s understanding of their personalized context within society—a transformative dialogue which requires courage. 


Angela Jirik, Abilene Christian University


Solitude in Gabriel García Márquez’s Cien años de soledad: The Effect of Mental illness on Language


This paper discusses how the linguistic effects of various mental disorders portrayed in

the novel Cien años de soledad match those described in research studies. It is then shown how, like Israel’s isolation from God led to Israel’s demise in the book of Kings, those effects contribute to the solitude in Macondo that led to the town’s downfall.

Session II C: Fostering the Cardinal Virtues as Spiritual Practice through Modern Language Instruction

Presider:  Glenn Martínez


Diana González, Northwestern College

The Virtuous Politeness

Virtue can be defined as a habit that is essentially good, which disposes the person to certain kind of acts contributing to harmonious social interaction. Hence, I consider politeness –-a social practice, and a habit as such–-to be a virtue. In my research, terms like viewing the neighbor as God’s creature, and putting the other first also were used to explain the concept of politeness.


Jacqueline Mitchell, Point Loma Nazarene University


A Leap of Faith: Fostering Courage in Intermediate Spanish


This presentation will explore how fostering the cardinal virtue of courage as a spiritual and academic practice can assist intermediate level students in overcoming their reluctance to speak and contribute to the advancement of their oral production skills.  Specific examples of teaching pedagogy executed during the fall of 2018 are provided.




Lyda Wilbur, Oklahoma Baptist University


Promoting Second Language Acquisition through Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning


This paper postulates that in the world language classroom educators can foster the natural virtue of temperance, that is self-regulation. Moreover, using the construct of self-efficacy as an additional tenet, this paper explores relational supportive conditions that can promote the construct of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in second language acquisition. 

Session II D: Language Pedagogy for Virtue Education within a Christian Worldview

Presider:  Karol Hardin


Cindy Walter-Gensler, Baylor University

Religion, Faith and Foreign Language Course Content – Images Revisited

I investigate the impact of the ACTFL standards on the integration of religion and faith into foreign language course curriculum. To do so, I consider the standards’ role in acknowledging religious beliefs and practices in their importance for FL learning, and then examine current textbooks’ portrayals of religion and faith.


Andrea Woodard, Grove Christian School/Virginia Commonwealth University


Transformative Learning and World Language: Critical Reflection in Pursuit of Virtue


How does language-learning transform the learner? This interactive workshop will include a short presentation of Transformative Learning theory, followed by collaborative discussion on approaches to foster critical reflection and cultural imagination through language-learning with a Christian worldview. Attendees will produce an integration plan for transformative reflection within their own classroom.


David I. Smith, Calvin College


Language Textbooks and the Social Imaginary: The Orbis Pictus and the London Vocabulary as Virtue Narratives


Viewed solely in terms of language-pedagogical progress, the 17th century Orbis Senusalium Pictus and the 18th century London Vocabulary seem similar. Yet they inhabit contrasting social imaginaries and imply differing accounts of the virtues. Examining this facet of their design suggests directions for Christian critique of present-day language texts.

Session III A: The Gift of the Stranger Twenty Years Later (Part II)

Presider:  Jacob Rapp


Itzel Reyes, Biola University


The Gift of the Stranger and the Pursuit of Justice in the World Language Classroom


This presentation discusses the pedagogical implications as well as the challenges of teaching world languages in an inhospitable era. Furthermore, it is argued that a social justice approach, based on the teaching principles proposed in The Gift of the Stranger, can enrich the world language curriculum and promote Christian hospitality, justice and courage. 


Kaitlyn Gibbens, Baylor University


Loving Our Neighbor: Learning and Teaching the Roles of Hospitality


Second only to loving our Lord, Jesus commands us to love our neighbors as ourselves. Today, this is increasingly important. This paper explores teaching and learning German with hospitality as a guiding principle—to be a blessing to strangers in our own country or theirs.


Scott Lamanna, Calvin College


The Gift of the Stranger and Linguistics in the Target Language


This presentation examines Smith and Carvill’s (2000) ethical framework for Christian foreign language education in relation to linguistics, specifically how learning another language structure helps us show hospitality to its speakers, how hospitality informs our response to target language variation, and how linguistics illuminates hospitality’s relationship to the natural virtues.

Session III B: Innovative Approaches and Pedagogies

Presider:  Julianne Bryant


Mary Docter, Westmont College

Using the Cross Cultural Adaptability Inventory to Strengthen Skills and Virtues

The CCAI assesses capacities in four areas correlated with successful adaptation to other cultures: flexibility and openness, perceptual acuity, personal autonomy, and emotional resilience. I show how we successfully use the CCAI in classes and illustrate—with examples from student work—that as students strengthen these areas, they also more fully embody the natural virtues of prudence, temperance and courage.

Daniel Woolsey, Hope College


Teaching the Natural Virtues in our Beginning-level Language Courses


In order to explicitly teach and model virtues like prudence, temperance, courage and justice, we must restructure our general education world languages courses to include critical cultural content and reexamine our language teaching methods to better reflect SLA principles. We must reevaluate both what we teach and how we teach.

Cynthia Slagter, Calvin College


Temperance:  A Retention Story


Josef Pieper describes temperance as “the realizing of … order within oneself” and declares that the way to achieve this order is through studiositas. This presentation outlines the efforts to support and retain at-risk students through a unique collaborative approach between the Spanish Department and the Center for Student Success.

Session III C: An Application of the Virtues in Spanish for Special Purposes

Presider:  Tamara Townsend


Piet J. Koene, Northwestern College


Interpreting at Church


This presentation will discuss the modes and style of interpreting church services, the pros and cons of consecutive vs. simultaneous interpreting, specialized equipment needed, how to prep pastors, challenges involved in religious interpreting, differences between Protestant and Catholic interpreting, avoiding doctrinal errors, and religious interpreting vis-à-vis court and medical interpreting.


Karol Hardin, Baylor University

The Gift of the Stranger in 2019:  Applications to Spanish for Health Professions

The biblical concept of “hospitality to the stranger” is applied to four areas of Spanish for Health Professions: (1) coursework, (2) teaching heritage students, (3) mentoring students in research, and (4) training for medical missions. The ideas may also be extended to other courses in language for specific purposes.






Glenn Martínez, The Ohio State University


Animating Cultural Humility in an Advanced Spanish for the Health Professions Course: A Virtue-Centered Approach


In this presentation, I will sketch out virtue-centered approach to teaching Spanish for the health professions that highlights the sociolinguistic patterns and interactional competencies that animate a perspective of cultural humility rooted in prudence, temperance, courage and justice.


Session III D: The Virtues as Christian Values and Moral Lessons

Presider:  Jacque Mitchell


Michael Thomas, Baylor University


New Wine in Old Wineskins: Appropriating Classic Narrative Models in Spanish Post-Civil War Fiction


Appropriating the Bildungsroman—the 19th century novel of ethical formation, post-war writers dramatize the rejection of fascist “values” and affirm universal, Christian values.  Appropriating the 19th century detective novel, deductive reasoning leads to solving the crime. In some contemporary Spanish novels, however, an innocent party will be arrested without hard evidence. In others, no punitive action will be taken against the guilty party.


Sara Ortega-Higgs, Lee University


Artificial Memory as an Art of Prudence in late medieval Castilian Dezires


This presentation aims to analyze the use of mnemonic devices such as “images of memory” (virtues and vices personifications or abstractions) and “memory places” (loci memoriae) in the 15th Century Castilian allegorical poems called dezires, in order to teach the reader moral lessons and help him to retain them.  


John Beaney, Messiah College


The Search for the Natural Virtues in the Nibelungenlied


The Middle High German heroic epic poem Das Nibelungenlied is based on the oral tradition of the Nibelungen saga.  An analysis of the virtues practiced by the characters demonstrates that although they may appear to be Christian, their actions lead to tragedy because they neglect the natural virtues and follow feudal values.

Session IV A: Building on a Strong Foundation: 20 Years of JCWL

Presider:  Scott Lamanna


Jan Evans and Jennifer Good, Baylor University

Cynthia Slagter,  David Smith and Dianne Zandstra, Calvin College


The panel welcomes past and present editors of the Journal of Christianity and World Languages to reflect on its history and their aspirations for JCWL’s 20th anniversary. They reflect on how CAWL’s dedicated journal can continue to shine light on the intersection of Christianity and World Languages teaching and scholarship.

Session IV B: A Consideration of the Virtues in the Literature Classroom (in Spanish)

Presider:  Rikki Brons


Salvador Gallego de la Rosa, Trinity Christian College (SIS)

La templanza como virtud imposible en el héroe romántico

After taking a tour through the most interesting passages of Spanish romanticism, we will discover that lack of temperance is one of the defining characteristics of the romantic hero, a circumstance that will help the teacher, along with their students, to reflect on this sadly forgotten virtue in present times.

Magda Rodriguez, Abeline Christian University


El poder del destino dentro de Cien años de soledad


In A Hundred Years of Solitude, Gabriel García Márquez centers the story on the destiny of Macondo and the Buendía family. The concept of predestination is used to attempt to understand the circular time of the novel and how it impacts the development of the life of the characters.


Session IV C: Cultivating the Virtues in Internships, Service, and Study Abroad

Presider:  Christine Goring Kepner


Lindy Scott and Kim Hernandez, Whitworth University


The Making of a Book: The History of Whitworth’s Central America Study and Service Program


All too often, Christian professors of foreign languages underestimate the value of our teaching and would never consider publishing a book about our work. This presentation describes the story of the book of Whitworth’s Central America Study and Service Program: from the motivation of the book, through the research and editing process, up to its publication and distribution.


Lindy Scott, Whitworth University


Courage and Justice in Nicaragua in 2018: The Role of Internships, Host Families, and even Romantic Friendships in the Cultivation of these Virtues


The cultivation of courage and justice usually combines the action of the Word and the Spirit of God, faithfulness by followers of Jesus, and a Kairos moment that requires these virtues in the nitty-gritty of life. This paper explores how Whitworth´s CASP 2018 program witnessed the coming together of these factors.


Patty Tinkey, Grove City College


Lessons Learned from Teaching the Course, Applied Spanish for Outreach


This course sought to prepare students for ministry with Spanish speakers, whether in missions or in personal ministry.  Specifics including course materials and the search for authentic interactions with Hispanics in rural PA will be shared along with unexpected lessons learned by the professor and the students.